S.N. Lisitsyn, A.E. Dudin. The gravettian / epigravettian in the kostenki-borshevo locality on the Don — the division criteria, cultural interpretation and periodisation*

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S.N. Lisitsyn - Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 18, St. Petersburg, 191186, Russia.
E-mail: serglis@rambler.ru.
ORCID: 0000-0002-9953-6969

A.E. Dudin - State archaeological museum-reserve «Kostenki», Yasnyi Proezd, 2, Voronezh, 394026, Russia.
E-mail: goodudin@gmail.com.
ORCID: 0000-0003-0579-5677

 

УДК 902/904
DOI: 10.31250/2658-3828-2019-1-70-107

 

Abstract: The article considers archaeological and chronological data on the Middle / Late Upper Paleolithic sites in the Kostenki-Borshevo locality on the Don River, which were attributed by various authors to the Gravettian and the Epigravettian cultures. Here I present an attempt to revise the periodisation of these industries in the light of new materials and 14C dates. The Gravettian of the Kostenki-Borshevo area consists of several cultural complexes. The Telmanskaia complex Kostenki 8 (II) which has a pronounced microlithoid character can be dated to ~27– 25 kyr BP. The Middle Gravettian is represented by the Aleksandrovka or “the Pavlovien” complex which is characterized by polished stone tools (Kostenki 4, Borschevo 5 and Kostenki 9) can be dated to ~25–24 kyr BP. The Late Gravettian is represented by the Kostenki- Avdeevo or “the East Gravettian” complex (Kostenki 1, 13, 14 (I) and 18) can be dated to~23–22 kyr BP. The Final Gravettian is represented by the Gmelinskaia complex of Kostenki 21 (III) with tiny shouldered points can be dated to ~22–21 kyr BP. The latter site contained the finds of Anosovka complex also associated with the site Kostenki 11 (II) characterized by geometric microliths, which is tentatively might be called “the Early Epigravettian”. The beginning of the LGM cooling event ~20 kyr BP was marked with “the Epiaurignacian” of Kostenki 11 (II) and Kostenki 2 sites. The recent Evolved Epigravettian sites Borschevo 1 and Borschevo 2 with 14C dates ~15–12 kyr BP were separated from the previous complexes by a significant hiatus and do not constitute with them either chronological or cultural continuity.

Keywords: the Middle Don basin, the Upper Paleolithic, the the Gravettian, the Epigravettian, LGM, stone and osseous inventories, dwellings, the periodisation.

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