S.A. Vasilyev. Epigravettian of Italy
S.A. Vasilyev - Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 18, St. Petersburg, 191186, Russia
ABSTRACT: The continuing hot debate in the Russian Paleolithic archaeological society connected with the definition of the “Eastern Epigravettian” brings up the necessity to characterize the “classical” Italian Epigravettian which is still little known in Russia. The paper presents a short summary of the main parameters of this Late Upper Paleolithic Mediterranean culture existed between 20 000 and 10 000 BP according to uncalibrated radiocarbon scale. It has been argued that sites distribution in the area was heavily affected by major paleoenvironmental changes such as decrease of mountain glaciers and inundation of huge land in the Adriatic. During this time span humans occupied Sicily. The Epigravettian sites are mostly represented by caves and rock shelters, while there are open-air habitation sites as well. Traces of domestic structures have been revealed. Three phases of culture development reflected in lithic inventories have been recognized. The general evolutionary trend especially during the Final Pleistocene was microlitization of the lithic industry. Discoveries of art objects are worth to mention. Among them engraved and painted pebbles and blocks are prevailed but there are several depictures of humans and animals on cave walls as well. The Epigravettian yielded a remarkable series of single and double burials accompanied by grave goods. Apart from Italy the Epigravettian sites are reported from the Southern France and Balkans. A comparative study of assemblages of Middle and Eastern Europe which are regarded as Epigravettian with the Mediterranean Epigravettian is still to be done. Key words: Italy, Mediterranean, Epigravettian, stone inventories, art, burials.
Keywords: Italy, Mediterranean, Epigravettian, stone inventories, art, burials.
- Bietti, А., The Late Upper Paleolithic in Italy: An Overview, Journal of World Prehistory, 1990, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 95–155.
- Bietti, A., Grifoni Cremonesi, R. (eds.), Lazio et Abruzzo, Forlì: A.B.A.C.O. Edizioni, 1995, 270 p.
- Broglio, A., Paleolitico, Mesolitico e Neolitico dell’Italia Nord-orientale, Forlì: A.B.A.C.O. Edizioni, 1995, 267 p.
- Broglio, A., Dalmeri, R. (eds.), Pitture Paleolitiche nelle Prealpi Veneto. Grotta di Fumane e Riparo Dalmeri, Verona: Museo civico di storia natirale di Verona, 2005, 192 p.
- Broglio, A., Castelletti, L., Frogo, G., Martello, G., Maspero, A., Peresani, M., Le Site Épigravettien de Val Lastari sur l’Haut Plateau d’Asiago (Préalpes de la Vénétie), Preistoria Alpina, 1992, vol. 28, pp. 207– 225.
- Gambassini, P., Martini, F., Palma di Cesnola, A., Peretto, C., Piperno, M., Ronchitelli, A.M., Sarti, L., Il Paleolitico dell’Italia Centro-meridionale, Forlì: A.B.A.C.O. Edizioni, 1995, 174 p.
- Mussi, M., Earliest Italy. An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic, New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002, 399 p.
- Olive, M. (ed.), Campo delle Piane: un Habitat de Plein Air Epigravettien Dans la Vallée du Gallero (Abruzzes, Italie Centrale), Rome: École française de Rome, 2017, 168 p.
- Palma di Cesnola, A., Paglicci ed il Paleolitico del Gargano, Foggia: Grenzi, 2003, 152 p.
- Peresani, M., Bertola, S., de Stefani, M., di Anastasio, G., Bus de la Lum and the Épigravettian Occupation of the Venetian Pre-Alps During the Younger Dryas, Rivista di Scienze Preistoriche, 1999–2000, no. 50, pp. 103–132.
- Romandini, M., Nannini, N., Chasseurs Epigravettiens Dans le Territoire de l’ours des Cavernes: le cas du Covolo Fortificato di Trene (Vicenza, Italie), L’Anthropologie, 2012, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 39–56.
- Sparacello, V.S., Rossi, S., Pettitt, P., Roberts, C., Riel- Salvatore, J., Formicola, V., New Insights on Final Epigravettian Funerary Behavior at Arene Candide Cave (Western Liguria, Italy), Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 2018, vol. 96, pp. 161–184.