V.A. Kisel. Funeral paraphernalia from kurgan Arzhan-2: decor, technologies, authorship

 Download  |  Go to Issue #2. 2019

 

Kisel Vladimir Antonievich. Peter the GreatMuseum of Anthropology and Ethnography (the Kunstkamera) RAS (Saint-Petersburg,  Russian Federation).

E-mail: kisel @ kunstkamera.ru

ORCID 0000-0002-7498-4837

 

Abstract

The kurgan of Arzhan-2 (TyvaRepublic, Russia) is an early burial-ceremony complex of the second half of the 7th century BC. The considerable number of the objects found in this burial place were made of gold and decorated in the Scythian animal style. The analysis of decoration style allows us to divide images in three groups characterized by specific features. While the objects from the first group were made by the nomadic craftsmen working in the original style, the objects from the second group were made according to the ancient nomadic art style inspired by different artistic traditions. The third group is represented by goldsmiths those worked under the strong cultural influences of Xinjiang and other areas of Northern China. The results of our study suggest that most of the Arzhan-2 art objects had been made immediately before the kurgan was constructed. The similarities between the objects from the Arzhan-2 burial complex and archaeological materials from other regions suggest that while tribes’ confederation which constructed burial-ceremony complex had cultural relations with Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Tuva and Northern China, it was Xinjiang tribes with those they maintained the closest cultural ties. Obviously, this tribal confederation was able to organize the jewelry-foundry workshops which provided expensive goods for their nobility. We guess that both the craftsmen of nomadic origin and the craftsmen from sedentary settlements worked in this workshop. The workshops could be located in the nomadic tribal chiefs’ camps or in the sedentary settlements controlled by the nomads. It can be assumed that such main characteristics of the Scythian classic animal style as complicated composition, characteristic ornamentation and focus on imaging of animals with twisted croup were elaborated in these workshops.

 

Key words:  Scythian animal style, jewelry workshop.

 

DOI: 10.31250/2658-3828-2019-2-93-122

 

References

Akishev, A.K., Iskusstvo i mifologiia sakov [Saka Art and Mythology], Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1984, 176 p., (in Russian).

Andersson, J.G., Hunting Magic in the Animal Style, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1932, no. 4, pp. 221–317.

Armbruster, B., Predmety iuvelirnogo iskusstva [Items of Jewelry], in: Chugunov K.V., Partsinger G., Nagler A. Tsarskii kurgan skifskogo vremeni Arzhan-2 v Tuve, Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2017, pp. 186–201, (in Russian).

Askarov, A., Drevnezemledel’cheskaia kul’tura epokhi bronzy iuga Uzbe-kistana [Ancient Agricultural Culture of the Bronze Age of the Southern Uzbekistan], Tashkent: Fan Publ., 1977, 232 p., (in Russian).

Avanesova, N.A., Animalisticheskie nakhodki epokhi bronzy Zaravshan-skoi doliny [Animalistic Finds of the Bronze Age of the ZaravshanValley], in: Arkheologiia Iuzhnoi Sibiri. K 80-letiiu Ia.A. Shera, Kemerovo: KemGU Publ., 2011, vol. 25, pp. 111–120, (in Russian).

Baiburin, A.K., Semioticheskie aspekty funktsionirovaniia veshchei [Semiotic Aspects of the Functioning of the Things], in: Etnograficheskoe izuchenie znakovykh sredstv kul’tury. Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1989, pp. 63–88, (in Russian).

Baiburin, A.K., Ritual v traditsionnoi kul’ture. Strukturno-semanticheskii analiz vostochnoslavianskikh obriadov [Ritual in Traditional Culture. Structural and Semantic Analysis of East Slavic Rites], St. Petersburg: Nauka Publ., 1993, 240 p., (in Russian).

Baiburin, A.K., Levinton, G.A., Pokhorony i svad’ba [Funeral and Wedding], in: Balto-slavianskie etnokul’turnye i arkheologicheskie drevnosti. Pogrebal’nyi obriad. Tezisy dokladov, Moscow: ISB AN SSSR Publ., 1985, pp. 5–9, (in Russian).

Beisenov, A.Z., Ismagulova, A.O., Kitov, E.P., Kitova, A.O., Naselenie Tsentral’nogo Kazakhstana v I tysiacheletii do n. e. [Population of Central Kazakhstan in the I Millennium BC], Almaty: IA im. A.Kh. Margulana Publ., 2015, 188 p., (in Russian).

Beisenov, A.Z. (ed.), Kazakhstan v sakskuiu epokhu [Kazakhstan in the Saka Era], Almaty: IA im. A.Kh. Margulana Publ., 2017, 228 p., (in Russian).

Bernshtam, T.A., Molodezh’ v obriadovoi zhizni russkoi obshchiny XIX — nachala XX v. Polovozrastnoi aspekt traditsionnoi kul’tury [Young People in the Ritual Life of the Russian Community in the 19 — Early 20 Century. Age and Gender Aspects of Traditional Culture], Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1988, 278 p., (in Russian).

Bessonova, S.S., Religioznye predstavleniia skifov [Religious Representations of the Scythians], Kiev: Naukova dumka Publ., 1983, 138 p., (in Russian).

Bogdanov, E.S., Obraz khishchnika v plasticheskom iskusstve kochevykh narodov Tsentral’noi Azii (skifo-sibirskaia khudozhestvennaia traditsiia) [The Image of a Predator in the Plastic Art of the Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia (the Scythian-Siberian Art Tradition)], Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2006, 240 p., (in Russian).

Bronnikov, A., Chugunov, K., Sokrovishcha Doliny tsarei Tuvy [Treasures of the KingsValley in Tuva], Moscow; St. Peterburg; Kyzyl: Fond Kuzhugeta Shoigu Publ., 2015, 244 p., (in Russian).

Bunker, E.C., Watt, J.C.Y., Zhixin Sun, Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes. The Eugene V. Thaw and Other New York Collections, New York; New Haven: The MetropolitanMuseum of Art; YaleUniversity Press, 2002, 233 p.

Bushkevich, S.P., Strakhov, A.B., Vostochnoslavianskii “krasnyi traur” po dannym fol’klora i pogrebal’noi obriadnosti [East Slavic “Red Mourning” According to Folklore and Funeral Rites], in: Balto-slavianskie etnokul’turnye i arkheologicheskie drevnosti. Pogrebal’nyi obriad. Tezisy dokladov, Moscow: ISB AN SSSR Publ., 1985, pp. 19–21, (in Russian).

Cheremisin, D.V., Iskusstvo zverinogo stilia v pogrebal’nykh kompleksakh riadovogo naseleniia pazyrykskoi kul’tury. Semantika zverinykh obrazov v kontekste pogrebal’nogo obriada [The Art of Animal Style in the Burial Complexes of the Ordinary Population of the Pazyryk Culture: Semantics of Animal Images in the Context of the Burial Rite], Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2008, 136 p., (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Kinzhal-akinak iz kurgana Arzhan-2 [Dagger-Akynak from the Kurgan Arzhan-2], in: Soobshcheniia Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha vol. 62, St. Petersburg: GE Publ., 2004, pp. 72–74, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Sosud Gestii ili chasha Gerakla? (Razmyshleniia po povodu odnogo shedevra) [The Vessel of Hestia or the Cup of Hercules? (Reflections on one Masterpiece)], in: In situ. K 85-letiiu professora A.D. Stoliara, St. Petersburg: SPbGU Publ., 2006, pp. 200–207, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Plity s petroglifami v komplekse kurgana Arzhan-2 (k khronologii arzhano-maiemirskogo stilia) [Flagstones with Petroglyphs in the Arzhan-2 Kurgan Complex (to the Chronology of the Arzhan-Mayemerian Style)], in: Tropoiu tysiacheletii: K iubileiu M.A. Devlet (Trudy Sibirskoi assotsiatsii issledovatelei pervobytnogo iskusstva vol. 4), Kemerovo: Kuzbassvuzizdat Publ., 2008, pp. 53–69, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Arzhan-1 i Arzhan-2: sravnitel’nyi analiz [Arzhan-1 and Arzhan-2: a Comparative Analysis], (Online), Novye issledovaniia Tuvy: elektronnyi zhurnal, 2009, no. 3, Available from http://www.tuva.asia/journal/issue_3/469-chugunov.html (Accessed 26.08.2018), (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Iskusstvo Arzhana-2: stilistika, kompozitsiia, ikonografiia, ornamental’nye motivy [Art of Arzhan-2: Style, Composition, Iconography, Ornamental Motifs], in: Evropeiskaia Sarmatiia, St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriia Publ., 2011, pp. 39–60, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Arzhan-2: rekonstruktsiia etapov funktsionirovaniia pogrebal’no-pominal’nogo kompleksa i nekotorye voprosy ego khronologii [Arzhan-2: Reconstruction of the Stages of Functioning of the Funeral-Memorial Complex and some Issues of its Chronology], Rossiiskii arkheologicheskii ezhegodnik, 2011, no. 1, pp. 262–335, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Zakhoroneniia “zolotykh liudei” v traditsii nomadov Evrazii (novye materialy i nekotorye aspekty issledovanii) [The Burial of “Golden People” in the Tradition of Nomads of Eurasia (New Materials and some Aspects of Research)], in: Dialog kul’tur Evrazii v arkheologii Kazakhstana, Astana: Saryarka Publ., 2014, pp. 714–725, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Zolotye oblacheniia u nomadov Evrazii kak istochnik dlia rekonstruktsii drevnikh kul’tov [Gold Vestments and Nomads of Eurasia as a Source for the Reconstruction of Ancient Cults], in: Aziia i Afrika v meniaiushchemsia mire. XXVIII Mezhdunarodnaia konferentsiia po istochnikovedeniiu i istoriografii stran Azii i Afriki, St. Petersburg: SPbGU Publ., 2015, p. 354., (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Paradnye poiasa kochevnikov Azii v ranneskifskoe vremia [Сeremonial Belts of Asian Nomads in the Early Scythian Time], in: Altai v krugu evraziiskikh drevnostei, Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2016, pp. 336–356, (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Partsinger, G., Nagler, A. Tsarskii kurgan skifskogo vremeni Arzhan-2 v Tuve [The Arzhan-2 King Kurgan of the Scythian Time in Tuva], Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2017, 500 p., (in Russian).

Chugunov, K.V., Tsari i bogi Aziatskoi Skifii (po materialam kurgana Arzhan-2) [The Kings and Gods of Asian Scythia (Based on the Arzhan-2 Kurgan)], in: Arkheologiia i davnia istoriia Ukraini, 2018, vol. 2 (27), pp. 25–34, (in Russian).

Darkevich, V.P., Argonavty Srednevekov’ia [Medieval Argonauts], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1976, 200 p., (in Russian).

Devlet, M.A., Petroglify na kochevoi trope [Petroglyphs on the Nomadic Trail], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1982, 128 p., (in Russian).

Dovatur, A.I., Kallistov, D.I., Shishova, I.A., Narody nashei strany v “Istorii” Gerodota [The Peoples of our Country in the “History” of Herodotus], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1982, 455 p., (in Russian).

Ermolova, N.V., Poiasa u narodov Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka [Belts of the Peoples of Siberia and the Far East], in: Ukrasheniia narodov Sibiri (Sbornik MAE, vol. 51), St. Petersburg: MAE RAN Publ., 2006, pp. 170–301, (in Russian).

Fedorov-Davydov, G.A., Iskusstvo kochevnikov i Zolotoi Ordy. Ocherki kul’tury i iskusstva Evraziiskikh stepei i zolotoordynskikh gorodov [The Art of Nomads and the Golden Horde. Sketches of Culture and Art of the Eurasian Steppes and Cities of the Golden Horde], Moscow: Iskusstvo Publ., 1976, 228 p., (in Russian).

Fialko, E.E., Nagaika iz Berdianskogo kurgana [Lash from the Berdyansk Kurgan], in: Drevnosti stepnogo Prichernomor’ia i Kryma, Zaporozh’e, 1993, vol. 4, pp. 197–200, (in Russian).

Frezer, D.D., Zolotaia vetv’: Issledovanie magii i religii [The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion], Moscow: Politizdat Publ., 1983, 703 p., (in Russian).

Galanina, L.K., Kelermesskie kurgany. “Tsarskie” pogrebeniia ranne-skifskoi epokhi [Kelermes Mounds. “Royal” Burials of the Early Scythian Era], Moscow: IVI RAN; GAI EO Publ., 1997, 269 p., (in Russian).

Gemuev, I.N. (ed.), Traditsionnoe mirovozzrenie tiurkov Iuzhnoi Sibiri. Prostranstvo i vremia. Veshchnyi mir [The Traditional Worldview of the Türks of Southern Siberia. Space and Time. The World of Things], Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1988, 225 p., (in Russian).

Gennep A., Obriady perekhoda. Sistematicheskoe izuchenie obriadov [Rites of Passage. Systematic Study of Rites], Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura Publ., 1999, 198 p., (in Russian).

Godekhardt, E., Shellenberg, Kh.M., Luki skifskogo vremeni [The Bows of the Scythian Time], in: Chugunov K.V., Partsinger G., Nagler A. Tsarskii kurgan skifskogo vremeni Arzhan-2 v Tuve, Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2017, pp. 220–232, (in Russian).

Griaznov, M.P., Arzhan. Tsarskii kurgan ranneskifskogo vremeni [Arzhan. Royal Mound of the Early Scythian Time], Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1980, 62 p., (in Russian).

Iatsenko, S.A., Kostium drevnei Evrazii: iranoiazychnye narody [Costume of Ancient Eurasia: Iranian-speaking Peoples], Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura Publ., 2006, 664 p., (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., Shedevry iuvelirov Drevnego Vostoka iz skifskikh kurganov [Masterpieces of Jewelers of the Ancient East from Scythian Burial Mounds], St. Petersburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie Publ., 2003, 192 p., (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., Ritual’nye sosudy i napitki skifov [Ritual Vessels and Drinks of the Scythians], in: Stepi Evrazii v drevnosti i srednevekov’e, St. Petersburg: GE Publ., 2003, vol. II, pp. 57–63, (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., Rasskaz Gerodota i ritual’nye sosudy drevnikh kochevnikov [The Story of Herodotus and the Rtual Vessels of the Ancient Nomads], Archaeology, Ethnography and Anthropology of Eurasia, 2007, no. 3 (31), pp. 69–79, (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., O kul’te konskogo bozhestva u drevnikh kochevnikov [On the Cult of the Horse Deity Among the Ancient Nomads], in: Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii Evrazii (Arkheologicheskii sbornik GE, vol. 39), St. Petersburg: GE Publ., 2013, pp. 31–39, (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., Arzhanskaia pektoral’: proiskhozhdenie, stilistika, simvolika [Arzhanskaya Pectoral: Origin, Style, Symbolism], in: “I muzoiu ego byla nauka’: Sbornik pamiati V.A. Koreniako, Azov: Azovskii muzei-zapovednik Publ., 2017, pp. 115–126, (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., Veshchi “tsarskoi” chety iz kurgana Arzhan-2 v Tuve (stilistika i avtorstvo) [Things of the “Royal” Couple from the Mound Arzhan-2 in Tuva (Style and Authorship)], in: Muzhskoi i zhenskii mir v otrazhenii arkheologii, Ufa: IIYL UFITs RAN Publ., 2018, pp. 139–145, (in Russian).

Kisel’, V.A., Zhenskii ritual’nyi kostium v drevnei kochevoi kul’ture Tuvy [Women’s Ritual Costume in the Ancient Nomadic Culture of Tuva], in: Pamiatniki arkheologii v issledovaniiakh i fotografiiakh (pamiati Galiny Vatslavny Dluzhnevskoi), St. Petersburg: IIMK RAN Publ., 2018, pp. 120–127, (in Russian).

Konovalov, A.V., Kruchenaia plet’, letaiushchii kobyz, razorvannyi kostium i raskalennyi metall (o “material’nykh” elementakh shamanskoi kul’tury kazakhov) [Twist Whip, Flying Kobyz, Torn Costume and Hot Metal (About the “Material” Elements of the Shaman Culture of the Kazakhs)], in: Evraziia skvoz’ veka, St. Petersburg: SPbGU Publ., 2001, pp. 232–233, (in Russian).

Korol’kova, E.F., Zverinyi stil’ Evrazii. Iskusstvo plemen Nizh-nego Povolzh’ia i Iuzhnogo Priural’ia v skifskuiu epokhu (VII–IV vv. do n. e.). Problemy stilia i etnokul’turnoi prinadlezhnosti [Eurasian Animal Style. The Art of the Tribes of the Lower Volga Region and the Southern Urals in the Scythian Era (7–4 Centuries BC). Problems of Style and Ethno-cultural Identity], St. Petersburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie Publ., 2006, 272 p., (in Russian).

Kotov, V.G., Ismagil, R., Kosmos kazak-kocherdykskogo akinaka: k voprosu o simvolicheskom statuse oruzhiia u skifov v skifo-sakskoi nomadologii [Cosmos of the Cossack-Kocherdyk Akinak: on the Issue of the Symbolic Status of Weapons Among the Scythians in the Scythian-Saka Nomadology], in: Arii stepei Evrazii: epokha bronzy i rannego zheleza v stepiakh Evrazii i na sopredel’nykh territoriiakh: Sbornik pamiati E.E. Kuz’minoi, Barnaul: AltGU Publ., 2014, pp. 488–497, (in Russian).

Kovalev, A.A., O proiskhozhdenii kul’tury olennykh kamney [On the Origin of the Deer Stone Culture], in: Evraziya skvoz’ veka, St. Petersburg: SPbGU Publ., 2001, pp. 160–166, (in Russian).

Kubarev, G.V., Kul’tura drevnikh tiurok Altaia (po materialam pogrebal’nykh pamiatnikov) [Culture of the Ancient Turks of the Altai (According to the Materials of the Funeral Monuments)], Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2005, 400 p., (in Russian).

Kullanda, S.V., Skifskie varny [Scythian Varna], Arkheologicheskie vesti, 2014, vol. 20, pp. 318–321, (in Russian).

Litvinskii, B.A., “Zolotye liudi” v drevnikh pogrebeniiakh Tsentral’noi Azii (opyt istolkovaniia v svete istorii religii) [“Golden People” in Ancient Burials of Central Asia (the Experience of Interpretation in the Light of the History of Religion)], Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1982, no. 4, pp. 34–43, (in Russian).

Machinskii, D.A., Pektoral’ iz Tolstoi Mogily i velikie zhenskie bozhestva Skifii [Pectoral from Tolstoy Graves and the Great Female Deities of Scythia], in: Kul’tura Vostoka. Drevnost’ i rannee srednevekov’e, Leningrad: Avrora Publ., 1978, pp. 131–150, (in Russian).

Marshak, B.I., Istoriia vostochnoi torevtiki III–XIII vv. i problemy kul’turnoi preemstvennosti [History of Eastern Toreutics of the 3–8 Centuries and Problems of Cultural Continuity], St. Petersburg: Akademiia issledovaniia kul’tury Publ., 2017, 736 p., (in Russian).

Maslova, G.S., Narodnaia odezhda v vostochnoslavianskikh traditsionnykh obychaiakh i obriadakh XIX — nachala XX v. [Folk Clothing in the East Slavic Traditional Customs and Rituals of the 19 — the Beginning of the 20 Century], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1984, 216 p., (in Russian).

Minasian, R.S., Sekrety skifskikh iuvelirov [Secrets of Scythian Jewelers], in: Arzhan. Istochnik v Doline tsarei, St. Petersburg: Slaviia Publ., 2004, pp. 40–44, (in Russian).

Minasian, R.S., Metalloobrabotka v drevnosti i Srednevekov’e [Metalworking in Antiquity and the Middle Ages], St. Petersburg: GE Publ., 2014, 472 p., (in Russian).

Minasian, R.S., Rannie skifskie i sarmatskie zheleznye akinaki (VII–V vv. do n. e.) [Early Scythian and Sarmatian Iron Akinaki (7–5 Centuries BC)], in: Konstantin Fedorovich Smirnov i sovremennye problemy sarmatskoi arkheologii, Orenburg: OGPU Publ., 2016, pp. 178–183, (in Russian).

Miniaev, S.S., K interpretatsii nekotorykh izobrazhenii na olennykh kamniakh [To the Interpretation of Some Images on Deer Stones], in: Kul’tury stepnoi Evrazii i ikh vzaimodeistvie s drevnimi tsivilizatsiiami, St. Petersburg: IIMK RAN; Periferiia Publ., 2012, vol. 1, pp. 262–267, (in Russian).

Mironova, L.N., Semantika tsveta v evoliutsii psikhiki cheloveka [Color Semantics in the Evolution of the Human Psyche], in: Problema tsveta v psikhologii, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1993, pp. 172–188, (in Russian).

Musselius, V.R., Olovo [Tin], in: Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’ Brokgauza i Efrona, St. Petersburg: Tipo-Litografiia I.A. Efrona Publ., 1897, vol. 42, pp. 893–896, (in Russian).

Partsinger, G., Elitnyi skifskii kurgan Arzhan-2 v Tuve: itogi izucheniia [Elite Scythian Kurgan Arzhan-2 in Tuva: the Results of the Study], in: Chugunov K.V., Partsinger G., Nagler A. Tsarskii kurgan skifskogo vremeni Arzhan-2 v Tuve, Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2017, pp. 302–326, (in Russian).

Pavlinskaia, L.R., Nabornye poiasa v kul’turakh Sibiri serediny XIX — nachala XX v. [Inlaid Belts in the Cultures of Siberia in the Middle of the 19 — Beginning of the 20 Centuries], in: Ukrasheniia narodov Sibiri (Sbornik MAE, vol. 51), St. Petersburg: MAE RAN Publ., 2006, vol. 51, pp. 302–341, (in Russian).

Perevodchikova, E.V., O razlichnykh formakh dialoga iskusstva stepi i tsivilizatsii: k postanovke voprosa [On the Various Forms of Dialogue Art Steppe and Civilization: to the Question], Stratum plus, 2009, no. 3, pp. 155–161, (in Russian).

Perevodchikova, E.V., Skifskii zverinyi stil’ Evropy i Kitai: nekotorye osobennosti dialoga [Scythian Animal Style of Europe and the China: some Features of the Dialogue], in: Teoriia i praktika arkheologicheskikh issledovanii, Barnaul: AltGU Publ., 2011, vol. 6, pp. 137–142, (in Russian).

Perevodchikova, E.V., K khronologii ranneskifskogo zverinogo stilia Iuzhnogo Urala [To the Chronology of the Early Scythian Animal Style of the Southern Urals], in: Etnicheskie vzaimodeistviia na Iuzhnom Urale, Cheliabinsk: ChGKM Publ., 2015, pp. 236–239, (in Russian).

Podol’skii, M.L., Zver’, kotoryi byl sam po sebe, ili Fenomenologiia skifskogo zverinogo stilia [The Beast, which was in Itself, or the Phenomenology of the Scythian Animal Style], St. Petersburg: ElekSis Publ., 2010, 192 p., (in Russian).

Pozdniakov, D.V., Rekonstruktsiia odezhdy [Clothing Reconstruction], in: Chugunov K.V., Partsinger G., Nagler A. Tsarskii kurgan skifskogo vremeni Arzhan-2 v Tuve, Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2017, pp. 215–220, (in Russian).

Radenkovich, L., Simvolika tsveta v slavianskikh zagovorakh [Symbolism of Color in the Slavic Conspiracies], in: Slavianskii i balkanskii fol’klor. Rekonstruktsiia drevnei slavianskoi kul’tury: istochniki i metody, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1989, pp. 122–148, (in Russian).

Raevskii, D.S., Mir skifskoi kul’tury [World of Scythian Culture], Moscow: Iazyki slavianskikh kul’tur Publ., 2006, 600 p., (in Russian).

Rudenko, S.I., Kul’tura naseleniia Gornogo Altaia v skifskoe vremia [Culture of the Population of Gorny Altai in Scythian Time], Moscow; Leningrad: AN SSSR Publ., 1953, 402 p., (in Russian).

Rudenko, S.I., Kul’tura naseleniia Tsentral’nogo Altaia v skifskoe vremia [Culture of the Population of Central Altai in the Scythian Time], Moscow; Leningrad: AN SSSR Publ., 1960, 359 p., (in Russian).

Rudenko, S.I., Sibirskaia kollektsiia Petra I [Siberian Collection of Peter the Great], Moscow; Leningrad: AN SSSR Publ., 1962, 52 p., (in Russian).

Salmony, A., Sino-Siberian Art in the Collection of C.T. Loo, Paris: C.T. Loo. Pablisher, 1933, 120 p.

Sarianidi, V.I., Drevnie zemledel’tsy Afganistana [The Ancient Farmers of Afghanistan], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1977, 171 p., (in Russian).

Savinov, D.G., Nuklearnoe iskusstvo zverinogo stilia [The Nuclear Art of Animal Style], Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii, 2017, vol. 247, pp. 28–49, (in Russian).

Savvinov, A.I., Traditsionnye metallicheskie ukrasheniia iakutov: XIX — nachalo XX veka: Istoriko-etnograficheskoe issledovanie [Traditional Metal Decorations of the Yakuts: 19 — Early Twentieth Century: Historical and Ethnographic Research], Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2001, 171 p., (in Russian).

Sedakova, O.A., Poetika obriada. Pogrebal’naia obriadnost’ vostochnykh i iuzhnykh slavian [Poetics of the Rite. Funeral Rites of the Eastern and Southern Slavs], Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2004, 320 p., (in Russian).

Semenov, Vl.A., Sypuchii Iar — mogil’nik aldy-bel’skoi kul’tury v Tuve [Sypuchiy Iar — the Burial Ground of Aldy-Bel Culture in Tuva], in: Evraziia skvoz’ veka, St. Petersburg: SPbGU Publ., 2001, pp. 167–172, (in Russian).

Serebriakova, M.N., O znakovoi funktsii narodnogo kostiuma (na primere kostiuma nevesty chepni v Turtsii) [On the Sign Function of the National Costume (on the Example of the Bride’s Costume of the Chepni in Turkey)], in: Etnograficheskoe izuchenie znakovykh sredstv kul’tury, Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1989, pp. 154–175, (in Russian).

Shastina, N.P. (ed.), Puteshestvie v vostochnye strany Plano Karpini i Rubruka [Journey to Eastern Countries of Plano Karpini and Rubruka], Moscow: GIGLPubl., 1957, 271 p., (in Russian).

Shchapova, Iu.A., Steklo Kievskoi Rusi [Glass of Kievan Rus], Moscow: MGU Publ., 1972, 215 p., (in Russian).

Shcheglova, O.A., Mastera bez masterskikh (K rekonstruktsii organizatsii iuvelirnogo dela v rannesrednevekovykh slavianskikh kul’turakh Vostochnoi Evropy) [Masters Without Workshops (To the Reconstruction of the Organization of Jewelry in the Early Medieval Slavic Cultures of Eastern Europe)], in: Proizvodstvennye tsentry: istochniki, “dorogi”, areal rasprostraneniia, St. Petersburg: Eleksis Print Publ., 2006, pp. 98–104, (in Russian).

Sher, Ia.A., Petroglify Srednei i Tsentral’noi Azii [Petroglyphs of Central Asia], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1980, 328 p., (in Russian).

Shilov, S.N., Ismagil, R., Kotov, V.G., Bannikov, A.L., Unikal’nyi bronzovyi kinzhal iz Kazak-Kocherdyka (Kurganskaia oblast’): tipologiia i semantika [Unique Bronze Dagger from Kazak-Kocherdyk (Kurgan Region): Typology and Semantics], Ufimskii arkheologicheskii vestnik, 2003, vol. 4, pp. 163–198., (in Russian).

Shul’ga, P.I., Snariazhenie verkhovoi loshadi i voinskie poiasa na Altae. Chast’ I: Ranneskifskoe vremia [Equipment Riding Horses and Military Belts in the Altai. Early PartI. Scythian Time], Barnaul: Azbuka Publ., 2008, 276 p., (in Russian).

Shul’ga, P.I., Sin’tszian v VIII–III vv. do n. e. (Pogrebal’nye kompleksy. Khronologiia i periodizatsiia) [Xinjiang in 8–3 Centuries BC (Funerary Complexes. Chronology and Periodization)], Barnaul: AltGTU Publ., 2010, 238 p., (in Russian).

Shul’ga, P.I., Mogil’nik Iuikhuanmiao v Severnom Kitae (VII–VI veka do nashei ery) [YuhuangmyaoCemetery in Northern China (7–6 Century BC)], Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publ., 2015, 304 p., (in Russian).

Smirnov, N.Iu., Na chem ezdil arzhanskii “tsar’’? [What Drove Arzhan “King”?], in: Kul’tury stepnoi Evrazii i ikh vzaimodeistvie s drevnimi tsivilizatsiiami, St. Petersburg: IIMK RAN; Periferiia Publ., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 424–432, (in Russian).

Tairov, A.D., Rannesakskie boevye poiasa [Early Saka Combat Belts], Rossiiskaia arkheologiia, 2004, no. 1, pp. 140–145, (in Russian).

Tairov, A.D., Botalov, S.G., Pogrebenie sakskogo vremeni mogil’nika Kichigino I v Iuzhnom Zaural’e [The Burial of the Saka Time of the Kichigino in the Southern Urals], in: Arkheologiia i paleoantropologiia evraziiskikh stepei i sopredel’nykh territorii, Moscow: TAUS Publ., 2010, pp. 339–354, (in Russian).

Tasmagambetov, I., The Centaurs of the Great Steppe. The Art Culture of Ancient Nomads, Almaty: Berel Publ., 2003, 336 p.

Terner, V., Simvol i ritual [Symbol and Ritual], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1983, 277 p., (in Russian).

Toporov, V.N., Mifologiia: Stat’i dlia mifologicheskikh entsiklopedii. T. 2 [Mythology: Articles for the Mythological Encyclopedia, vol. 2], Moscow: Iazyki slavianskoi kul’tury Publ., 2014, 536 p., (in Russian).

Usmanova, E.R., Logvin, V.N., Zhenskie nakosnye ukrasheniia Kazakhstana (epokha bronzy) [Women’s Tress Decorations of Kazakhstan (Epoch of Bronze)], Lisakovsk, 1998, 64 p., (in Russian).

Vainshtein, S.I., Pamiatniki kyzylganskoi kul’tury [The Objects of the Kyzylgan Culture], in: Trudy Tuvinskoi kompleksnoi arkheologo-etnograficheskoi ekspeditsii, Moscow; Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1966, vol. 2, pp. 143–184, (in Russian).

Van Pen, Vzaimodeistvie kul’tur bronzovogo i rannego zheleznogo veka Iuzhnoi Sibiri, Sin’tsziana i Severnogo Kitaia [The Interaction of Cultures of the Bronze and Early Iron Age of South Siberia, Xinjiang and Northern China], Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Istoriia, filologiia, 2018, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 16–29, (in Russian).

Varenov, A.V., O tochnom datirovanii izobrazhenii tigrov v gorakh Khelan’shan’ i oleniakh v “stile olennykh kamnei” [Accurately Dating the Tigers in HellandshanMountains and Reindeer in the Deer Stones Style], Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Istoriia, filologiia, 2018, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 30–39, (in Russian).

Vedianin, S.D., Kungurov, A.L., Gruntovyi mogil’nik staro-aleiskoi kul’tury Obskie Plesy 2 [Flat-grave burial ground Obskie Plesy 2 of the Staro-Aley Culture], in: Pogrebal’nyi obriad drevnikh plemen Altaia, Barnaul: AltGU Publ., 1986, p. 88–114, (in Russian).

Vishnevskaia, O.A., Kul’tura sakskikh plemen nizov’ev Syrdar’i v VII–V vv. do n. e. Po materialam Uigaraka [The Culture of the Sak Tribes of the Lower Reaches of the Syr-Darya in the 7–5 Centuries BC. According to Uygarak], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973, 160 p., (in Russian).

Vladimirtsov, B.Ia. (ed.), Mongol’sko-oiratskii geroicheskii epos [Mongol-Oirat Heroic Epic], St. Petersburg; Moscow: Vsemirnaia literatura Publ., 1923, 255 p., (in Russian).

Zasetskaia, I.P., Sokrovishcha kurgana Khokhlach. Novocherkasskii klad [Treasure Mound Hohlach. Novocherkassk Treasure], St. Petersburg: GE Publ., 2011, 328 p., (in Russian).

Zavitukhina, M.P., Drevnee iskusstvo na Enisee. Skifskoe vremia. Publikatsiia odnoi kollektsii [Ancient Art on the Yenisei. Scythian Time. Publish a Single Collection], Leningrad: Iskusstvo Publ., 1983, 191 p., (in Russian).