V.A. Manko. Crimean Swiderian or Crimean PPNB?
Manko Valerii Aleksandrovich. Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine (Kiev, Ukraine).
E-mail: Valery_Manko @ yahoo.com
The article analyzes the problems of the origin and chronology of the so-called “Crimean Swiderian”. This industry demonstrates an almost absolute identity to the classic Swiderian, known in Poland, Northern Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania. At the same time, the Crimean Swiderian and theclassic Swiderian are separated by the steppes and forest-steppes of Eastern Europe. Because it is rather difficult to find a reason for long-distance migration of specialized reindeer hunters to the South we have to look for other possible explanations for the appearance of an analogue of the Swiderian industry in Crimea. In search of the roots of the Swider culture of Crimea, we must to pay attention to the stone industry of the cultural and historical area of the Pre-pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) in which, as well as in the Crimean Swiderian, the bidirect technique of blades removal is widespread and tanged points with ventral retouching are commonly used. The study of the chronology of Crimean sites showed that the Crimean Swiderian and PPNB are developing absolutely synchronously. This is evidenced by a series of absolute dates indicating that the phenomenon existed in the interval 9600–8200 BP. This dating of the Crimean Swiderian is also confirmed by relative chronology, which gives reason to assert its coexistence with Kukrek and Late Shankobian culture. The beginning of the development of the Crimean Swiderian is coincident with the peak of migration activity of the carriers of the PPNB traditions, which led to the emergence of the PPNB phenomenon in Cyprus. An analysis of the technique of blades making also favours to the presence of features of early PPNB in the Crimean Swiderian. We argue that Crimea in the second half of the Preboreal and Doreal was a marginal zone of the PPNB, which was formed as a result of migrations of certain groups from the Middle East in their endeavour to continue a way of life based on hunting and gathering.
Key words: Swiderian, Crimean Swiderianm, PPNB, Holocene, migrations, naviform cores cores, pencil-like cores, tanged points.
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