N.N. Skakun, L. Longo, V.V. Terekhina, I.E. Pantyukhina, J. Heredia, D.M. Shulga. Results of the integrated study of a large stone tool from the Upper Paleolithic site Suren I

 Download  |  Go to Issue #1. 2021

 

N.N. Skakun - Institute for the History of Material Culture RAS, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
E-mail: skakunnatalia @ yandex.ru
ORСID: 0000-0003-0579-3022

L. Longo - Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy
E-mail: gstlongo @ gmail.com
ORСID: 0000-0001-6562-3047

V.V. Terekhina - Institute for the History of Material Culture RAS, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
E-mail: terehinavera @ mail.ru
ORСID: 0000-0002-7065-8284

I.E. Pantyukhina - Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far-East, Far-Eastern Branch of the RAS, Vladivostok, Russian Federation
E-mail: pantukhina2000 @ mail.ru
ORСID: 0000-0001-6206-5799 

J. Heredia - Experimenter,Granada, Spain
E-mail: joseheredia.tallalitica @ gmail.com
ORСID: 0000-0002-2662-3244

D.M. Shulga - St. Petersburg Bread Museum, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
E-mail: ladarsak @ gmail.com
ORСID: 0000-0002-5080-490X

 

Abstract

The materials of many Paleolithic sites in Eurasia contain large stone objects. As a rule, they retain their natural shape without any signs of artificial modification. However, the presence of characteristic use-wear features (polishing, linear traces, micro- and macrodeformations) unambiguously indicates that these stones served as tools. Multidisciplinary research, including an experimental and traceological approach, as well as analysis of organic micro-residues, make it possible to distinguish among the unmodified stone tools those that were used for processing plant raw materials. One of such tools is a large stone found in the lower layer of the Upper Paleolithic site Suren I** (Crimea). The results obtained in the course of the study suggest that the inhabitants of the site used plant materials in their household activities, as well as allow us to describe in detail the ways of adaptation of ancient people to the natural environment of the Crimean peninsula.

 

Key words: Crimea, Upper Paleolithic, unmodified stone tool, experimental and traceological analysis, analysis of organic micro-residues.

 

DOI: 10.31250/2658-3828-2021-1-8-24

 

For сitation: Skakun N.N., Longo L., Terekhina V.V., Pantyukhina I.E., Heredia J., Shulga D.M. Results of the integrated study of a large stone tool from the Upper Paleolithic site Suren I. Camera praehistorica, 2021, no. 1 (6), рр. 8–24. DOI: 10.31250/2658-3828-2021-1-8-24 (in Russian).

 

References 

  • Adams, J., Delgado, S., Dubreil, L., Hamon, C., Plisson, H., Risch, R., Functional Analysis of Macro-Lithic Artefacts: A Focus on Working Surfaces, in: Non-Flint Raw Material Use in Prehistory. Old prejudices and new directions: Proceedings of XV World Congress of the International Union for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences (Lisbon, September 4-9 2006) (BAR. no. 1939), London: Arсhaeopress, 2009, pp. 43–66.

  • de Beaune, S.A., Les galets utilisés au Paléolithique supérieur. Approche archéologique et expérimentale (Suppl. Gallia Préhistoire. 32.1), Paris: CNRS, 1997, 299 p. 

  • Bogdanov, D.N., Kvartsitovoye orudiye udarno kontrudarnogo deystviya iz Kostenok 14: Chastnoye i obshcheye v ispol'zovanii nerasshcheplennykh yestestvennykh otdel'nostey krupnozernistykh porod kamnya v pozdnem paleolite Yevropy [Quartzite Counterblowing Tool from Kostenki 14: Particular and Common in the Use of Undifferentiated Natural Aggregates of Coarse-Grained Stone Rocks in the Late Paleolithic of Europe], in: Al'manakh molodykh arkheologov. 2005. Po materialam II Mezhdunarjdnoy studencheskoy nauchnoy konferentsyi «Problemy kul'turogeneza i drevney istorii Vostochnoy Yevropy i Sibiri», St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2005, pp. 22–31, (in Russian).

  • Chabay, V.P., Osobennosti perekhoda ot srednego k pozdnemu paleolitu v Krymu [Features of the Transition from the Middle to Late Paleolithic in the Crimea], Stratum Plus, 2000, no. 1, pp. 54–83, (in Russian).

  • Demidenko, Yu.E., Otte, M., Noiret, P. (eds.), Siuren I rock-shelter. From Late Middle Paleolithic and Early Upper Paleolithic to Epi-Paleolithic in Crimea (ERAUL, vol. 129), Liège: Université de Liège, 2012, 425 p.

  • Grichan, Yu.V., Novye aspekty paleoekonomiki v pozdnepaleoliticheskikh pamiatnikakh Zabaikal'ia (po materialam poseleniia Varvarina gora) [New Aspects of Paleoeconomics in the Late Paleolithic Sites of Transbaikalia (Based on Materials from the Site of Varvarina Gora)], in: Chelovek i prostranstvo v kul'turakh kamennogo veka Evrazii, Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN, 2006, pp. 9–16, (in Russian).

  • Hamon, C., Plisson, H., Functional Analysis of Grinding Stones: The Blinding-test Contribution, in: "Prehistoric Technology" 40 years later: Functional Studies and the Russian Legacy. Proceedings of the International Congress (Verona, 20–23 April 2005) (BAR, no. 1783), London: Archaeopress, 2008, pp. 29–38.

  • Korobkova, G.F., Eksperimental'noye izucheniye orudiy truda i drevnikh proizvodstv epokhi paleolita [An Experimental Study of Tools and Ancient Industries of the Paleolithic], in: Arkheologicheskiye otkrytiya 1971 g., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1972, pp. 171–173, (in Russian).

  • Kuchugura, L.I., Kvoprosu o tipologii izdeliy iz neizomorfnykh porod v verkhnem paleolite [On the Typology of Products from Nonisomorphic Rocks in the Upper Paleolithic], Arkheologicheskii almanakh, 2003, no. 13, pp. 308–314, (in Russian).

  • Liu, L., Bestel, S., Shi, J., Song, Y., Chen, X., Paleolithic Human Exploitation of Plant Foods During the Last Glacial Maximum in North China, PNAS, 2013, vol. 110, no. 14, pp. 5380–5385.

  • Longo, L., Skakun, N., Sorrentino, G., Vassallo, V., Abate, D., Terekhina, V., Sinitsyn, A., Khlopachev, G., Hermon, S., Les gestes retrouves: a 3D visualisation approach to the functional study of Early Upper Palaeolithic grinding stones, in: Exploring Oceans of Data. Proceedings of the 44th Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (Oslo, 29 March – 2 April 2016), Oxford: Archaeopress, 2018, pp. 447–455.

  • Marreiros, J.M., Gibaja, J.F., Bicho, N.F. (eds.), Use-Wear and Residue Analysis in Archeology, New York; Dordrecht; London: Springer International Publ., 2015, 223 p.

  • Merezhkovskiy, K.S., Otchet o predvaritel'nykh issledovaniyakh kamennogo veka v Krymu [Report on Preliminary Studies of the Stone Age in Crimea], Izvestiia Imperatorskogo Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva, vol. 16, 1981, pp. 106–146, (in Russian).

  • Pantyukhina, I.E., Metod analiza drevnego krakhmala v voprosakh i otvetakh [Ancient Starch Analysis Method in Questions and Answers], Mul'tidistsiplinarnye issledovaniia v arkheologii, 2020, no. 1, pp. 103–118, (in Russian).

  • Pearsall, D.M., Chandler-Ezell, K., Zeidler, J.A., Maize in Ancient Ecuador: Results of Residue Analysis of Stone Tools from the Real Alto Site, JAS, 2004, vol. 31, pp. 423–442.

  • Reichert, E.T., The Differentiation and Specificity of Starches in Relation to Genera, Species, etc.: Stereochemistry Applied to Protoplasmic Processes and Products, and as a Strictly Scientific Basis for the Classification of Plants and Animals, pt. 1 (Carnegie Institute of Washington, no. 173), Washington: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1913, 342 p.

  • Revedin, A., Aranguren, B., Becattini, R., Longo, L., Marconi, E., Mariotti Lippi, M., Skakun, N., Sinitsyn, A., Spiridonova, E., Svoboda, J., Thirty Thousand-year-old Evidence of Plant Food Processing, PNAS, 2010, vol. 107, no. 44, pp. 18815–18819. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1006993107

  • Rogachev, A.N., Ob uslozhnennom sobiratel'stve kak forme khozyaystva v epokhu paleolita na Russkoy ravnine [Complicated Gathering as a Form of Economy in the Paleolithic Era on the Russian Plain], in: Antropologicheskaya rekonstruktsiya i problemy paleoetnografii: Sbornik pamyati M.M. Gerasimova, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 127–142, (in Russian).

  • Semenov, S.A., Razvitiye tekhniki v kamennom veke [The Development of Technology in the Stone Age], Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1968, 362 p., (in Russian).

  • Semenov, S.A., Proiskhozhdeniye zemledeliya [The Origin of Agriculture], Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1974, 318 p., (in Russian).

  • Shchelinskiy, V.E., Terochnyi kamen' iz must'yerskogo kul'turnogo sloya Barakayevskoy peshchery [Grinding Stone from the Mousterian Cultural Layer of the Barakaevskaya Cave], in: Neandertal'tsy Gupsskogo ushchel'ya na Severnom Kavkaze, Maykop: Meoty Publ., 1994, pp. 148–150, 237, (in Russian).

  • Skakun, N.N., Longo, L., Leonova, N.B., Terekhina, V.V., Pantyukhina, I.Ye., Yel'tsov, M.V., Vinogradova, Ye.A., Predvaritel'nyye rezul'taty kompleksnogo analiza kamennoy plitki iz verkhnepaleoliticheskoy stoyanki Kamennaya Balka II [Preliminary Results of a Comprehensive Analysis of Stone Tiles from the Upper Paleolithic Site Kamennaya Balka II], in: Strategiya zhizneobespecheniya v kamennom veke, pryamyye i kosvennyye svidetel'stva rybolovstva i sobiratel'stva: materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 50-letiyu V.M. Lozovskogo. Sankt-Peterburg, 15–18 maya 2018 g., St. Petersburg: IIMKRAN Pabl., GE Publ., 2018, pp. 238–240, (in Russian).

  • Skakun, N.N., Kovalenko, S.I., Terekhina, V.V., Rezul'taty izucheniya kamennykh predmetov iz sloya 2B mnogosloynoy stoyanki Koseuts' (Respublika Moldova) [Results of Studying Stone Objects from Layer 2B of the Multi-layered Site Koseuts (Republic of Moldova)], Archeology of the Eurasian steppes, 2020, no. 3, pp. 194–201, (in Russian).

  • Skakun, N., Longo, L., Terekhina, V., Kovalenko, S., Shul'ga, D., Pantyukhina, I., Mednikova, E.Yu., Kamennyye terochniki i pesty iz seletoidnogo sloya grota Brynzeny I (Ruspublika Moldova) (v svete eksperimental'no-trasologicheskogo issledovaniya, dannykh analiza organicheskikh ostatkov i 3D skanirovaniya) [Grinding Stones and Pestles from the Szeletian Layer of Brînzeni I Grotto (Republic of Moldova) (in the Light of Experimental and Traceological Study, Data of Organic Remains Analysis and 3D Scanning)], Eminak, 2020, no. 1 (29), pp. 74–86, (in Russian).

  • Stepanova, K.N., Nemodifitsirovannyye kamennyye orudiya verkhnego paleolita Vostochnoy Evropy [Unmodified Upper Paleolithic Stone Tools of Eastern Europe], Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata istoricheskikh nauk, St. Petersburg, 2015, 33 p., (in Russian).

  • Stepanova, K., Upper Palaeolithic Grinding Stones from Eastern European Sites: An Overview, Quaternary International, 2020, vol. 541, pp. 162–181. DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2019.11.035

  • Torrence, R., Wright, R., Conway, R., Identification of Starch Granules Using Image Analysis and Multivariate Techniques, JAS, 2004, vol. 31, pp. 519–532.

  • Vekilova, E.A., Stoyanka Syuren' I i yeyo mesto sredi paleoliticheskikh mestonakhozhdeniy Kryma i blizhayshikh territoriy [Suren I Site and its Place Among the Paleolithic Localities of the Crimea and Adjacent Territories], in: Paleolit i neolit SSSR, vol. 3. Materialy po stratigrafii i otnositel'noy khronologii verkhnego paleolita SSSR (Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, no. 59), Moscow; Leningrad: AN SSSR Publ., 1957, pp. 235–323, (in Russian).

  • Vekilova, E.A., Kamennyy vek Kryma. Nekotoryye itogi i problemy [Stone Age of Crimea. Some Results and Problems], in: Paleolit i neolit SSSR, vol. 6 (Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, no. 173), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1971, pp. 117–161, (in Russian).